Argumenta – Journal of Analytic Philosophy

 

Modal Logicism and De Re Necessity [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 14 • Author/s: Tobias Wilsch
Topics: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Modal Logic, Ontology

This article introduces Logicism about Necessity as a competitor to the currently popular Essentialism. The main point of contention between the two views concerns the ultimate source of metaphysical necessity. Essentialists take essences to ultimately ground metaphysical necessity, Logicists take logic to play that role. I provide some support for the claim that one of these two views is correct, and I use recent material from Fabrice Correia and Alex Skiles to develop a specific version of Logicism in some detail. The main ambition of the article is to present…

Logical Essence [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 14 • Author/s: Jessica Leech
Topics: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Modal Logic, Ontology, Philosophical logic

An increasingly popular view at the intersection of logic and metaphysics is that logical necessities have their source in the essences of logical entities: metaphysical necessity has its source in the essences or natures of things, and logical necessity is a restriction of metaphysical necessity. But logical and metaphysical necessity are, nevertheless, importantly distinct: there are metaphysical necessities that are not logical necessities. I raise a serious problem for this essentialist view. It seems as though they must misclassify some merely metaphysical necessities as logical necessities. I argue that the…

Logical and Ontological Issues in the Manifest and the Scientific Images: An Introduction [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 16 • Author/s: Francesco Orilia, Mario Alai, Ernesto Graziani
Topics: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ontology, Philosophy of language, Philosophy of science, Theoretical philosophy

On Sellars’ Attempt to Build a Synoptic Image of the World [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 16 • Author/s: Mauro Dorato
Topics: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ontology, Philosophy of science, Theoretical philosophy

In the first part of the paper, I discuss three possible ways to achieve some unity between Sellars’ manifest and scientific image of the world. The plurality of scientific methods that I am advocating is compatible with the fact that all empirical sciences strive for beliefs based on the normative concepts of evidence, explanatory power, and experimental accuracy. Such methods provide different means to reach the common purpose of justification. In the second part of the paper, I criticize Sellars’ definition of the manifest image in terms of a suddenly…

Possible Limits of Conceptual Engineering: Magnetism, Fixed Points and Inescapability [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 16 • Author/s: Matti Eklund
Topics: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ontology, Theoretical philosophy

In contemporary philosophy there is much focus on conceptual engineering: the enterprise of revising and replacing concepts. In this talk, I focus on a theoretical issue that has not yet received much attention. What principled limits are there to this sort of enterprise? Are there concepts that for principled reasons cannot or should not be revised or replaced? Examples discussed include logical concepts and normative concepts.

Cohabiting with the Logical Paradoxes: A Negative Assessment and a Proposal [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 16 • Author/s: Riccardo Bruni, Francesco Orilia
Topics: Epistemology, Logic, Metaphysics, Philosophical logic, Philosophy of language, Theoretical philosophy

At the commonsensical level of the manifest image, we seem to take for granted logical laws of all sorts, including classical logic (CL) and naive principles of truth and predication (TP), which, however, generate logical paradoxes such as the liar, Russell’s paradox and Curry’s paradox. The formal logic of the scientific image comes to the rescue by proposing many competing formal systems that restore consistency, by sacrificing either principles of CL or principles of TP. We wish to explore a different path, which aims at saving both CL and TP,…

In Defense of Irreducible Relations [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 16 • Author/s: Francesco Orilia, Michele Paolini Paoletti
Topics: Epistemology, Logic, Metaphysics, Ontology, Philosophy of language

At least since Russell, mainstream analytic philosophy has distinguished internal and external relations and acknowledged the existence of both. This seems in line with both the manifest and scientific images of the world. However, there is a recent deflationary trend about relations, which focuses on the truthmakers of relational statements in order to show that putative external relations are in fact internal, and that internal relations do not really exist. Lowe’s posthumous 2016 paper is a thorough presentation of this line of thought. This article critically analyzes Lowe’s arguments in…

A Regional Scientific Image of Time [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 16 • Author/s: Vincenzo Fano
Topics: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Ontology, Philosophy of science, Theoretical philosophy

Doing metaphysics by building on empirical sciences is a very controversial matter. This paper outlines a middle road between the Scylla of denying the possibility of metaphysics and the Charybdis of doing metaphysics a priori. This is possible if, on the one hand, we accept a moderate form of scientific realism. On the other, we establish a logico-epistemological framework adequate to face the underdetermination of metaphysical theses with respect to our best scientific theories. The case of the debate between eternalism and presentism tests my perspective. In this case study,…

Epistemological Issues in the Manifest and the Scientific Images: An Introduction [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 17 • Author/s: Mario Alai, Francesco Orilia
Topics: Epistemology, Introduction, Metaphysics, Philosophy of mind, Philosophy of science, Theoretical philosophy

Structure Representation of Deep-Learning Models: The Case of AlphaFold [Special Issue]

Issue: Issue 17 • Author/s: Giovanni Galli
Topics: Epistemology, Metaphysics, Philosophy of science, Theoretical philosophy

The scientific enterprise enriches the debate about models. In particular, in the field of structural biology, a new deep-learning neural network system called AlphaFold has been applied for many purposes. It allows us to predict a protein’s structure with high accuracy. I will present the system in light of the discussion of structure representation and argue for a specific kind of representational relation holding between the predicted model structure and its target-system. By doing so, I will criticize the artifactual approach advanced by Knuuttila (2021) and present the features that…
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